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2023-2024 income tax brackets (marginal tax rates)

The tax code changes annually, bringing new brackets, rates, and rules for filers. Here are the brackets and current rates for 2024 (applying to 2023 returns).

A tax bracket is a range of income the government taxes at a certain rate. The United States has a progressive tax system, which means taxpayers pay a certain percentage rate of their taxable income.

The higher your income is, the more you’ll pay.

2023 income tax brackets (due in 2024)

The following brackets are for use in 2024, for taxes due April 15, 2024 (or October 15, 2024 with an extension) when your taxes from 2023 will be due.

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINTLY) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $11,000 Up to $22,000 p to $15,700
12% Over $11,000 up to $44,725 Over $22,000 up to $89,450 Over $15,700 up to $59,85
22% Over $44,725 up to $95,375 Over $89,450 up to $190,750 Over $59,850 up to $95,350
24% Over $95,375 up to $182,100 Over $190,750 up to $364,200 Over $95,350 up to $182,100
32% Over $182,100 up to $231,250 Over $364,200 up to $462,500 Over $182,100 up to $231,250
35% Over $231,250 up to $578,125 Over $462,500 up to $693,750 Over $231,250 up to $578,100
37% Over $578,125 Over $693,750 Over $578,100

2024 income tax brackets (due in 2025)

If you’re curious about new tax brackets, the seven federal income tax rates are the same. The income thresholds are however adjusted. These are the announced changes for taxes you will file in April 2025 (or October 2025 with an extension) when your 2024 taxes will be due.

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINTLY) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $11,600 Up to $23,220 Up to $16,550
12% Over $11,600 up to $47,150 Over $23,220 up to $94,300 Over $16,550 up to $63,100
22% Over $47,150 up to $100,525 Over $94,300 up to $201,050 Over $63,100 up to $100,500
24% Over $100,525 up to $191,950 Over $201,050 up to $383,900 Over $100,500 up to $191,950
32% Over $191,950 up to $243,725 Over $383,900 up to $487,450 Over $191,950 up to $243,700
35% Over $243,725 up to $609,350 Over $487,450 up to $731,200 Over $243,700 up to $609,350
37% Over $609,350 Over $731,200 Over $609,350

NOTE: The dollar figures in these tables refer to your taxable income, not your total income. Your taxable income is your income after certain deductions have been subtracted.

Historical income tax brackets

Some recent income tax brackets for reference.

2022 income tax brackets

(Originally due in 2023.)

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINTLY) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $10,275 Up to $20,550 Up to $14,650
12% Over $10,275 up to $41,775 Over $20,550 up to $83,550 Over $14,650 up to $55,900
22% Over $41,775 up to $89,075 Over $83,550 up to $178,150 Over $55,900 up to $89,050
24% Over $89,075 to $170,050 Over $178,150 up to $340,100 Over $89,050 up to $170,050
32% Over $170,050 up to $215,950 Over $340,100 up to $431,900 Over $170,050 up to $215,950
35% Over $215,950 up to $539,900 Over $431,900 up to $647,850 Over $215,950 up to $539,900
37% Over $539,900 Over $647,850 Over $539,900

2021 income tax brackets

(Originally due in 2022.)

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINTLY) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $9,950 Up to $19,900 Up to $14,200
12% Over $9,950 up to $40,525 Over $19,900 up to $81,050 Over $14,200 up to $54,200
22% Over $40,525 up to $86,375 Over $81,050 up to $172,750 Over $54,200 up to $86,350
24% Over $86,375 to $164,925 Over $172,750 up to $329,850 Over $86,350 up to $164,900
32% Over $164,925 up to $209,425 Over $329,850 up to $418,850 Over $164,900 up to $209,400
35% Over $209,425 up to $523,600 Over $418,8510 up to $628,300 Over $209,400 up to $523,600
37% Over $523,600 Over $628,300 Over $523,600

2020 income tax brackets

(Originally due in 2021.)

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINTLY) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $9,875 Up to $19,750 Up to $14,100
12% Over $9,875 up to $40,125 Over $19,750 up to $80,25 Over $14,100 up to $53,700
22% Over $40,125 up to $85,525 Over $80,250 up to $171,050 Over $53,700 up to $85,500
24% Over $85,525 up to $163,300 Over $171,050 up to $326,600 Over $85,500 up to $163,300
32% Over $163,300 up to $207,350 Over $326,600 up to $414,700 Over $163,300 up to $207,350
35% Over $207,350 up to $518,400 Over $414,700 up to $622,050 Over $207,350 up to $518,400
37% Over $518,400 Over $622,050 Over $518,400

2019 income tax brackets

(Originally due in 2020.)

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINTLY) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $9,700 Up to $19,400 Up to $13,850
12% Over $9,700 up to $39,475 Over $19,400 up to $78,950 Over $13,850 up to $52,850
22% Over $39,475 up to $84,200 Over $78,950 up to $168,400 Over $52,850 up to $84,200
24% Over $84,200 up to $160,725 Over $168,400 up to $321,450 Over $84,200 up to $160,700
32% Over $160,725 up to $204,100 Over $321,450 up to $408,200 Over $160,700 up to $204,100
35% Over $204,100 up to $510,300 Over $408,200 up to $612,350 Over $204,100 up to $510,300
37% Over $510,300 Over $612,350 Over $510,300

2018 income tax brackets

(Originally due in 2019.)

RATE SINGLE MARRIED (JOINT) HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
10% Up to $9,525 Up to $19,050 Up to $13,600
12% Over $9,525 up to $38,700 Over $77,400 up to $77,400 Over $13,600 up to $51,800
22% Over $38,700 up to $82,500 Over $77,400 up to $165,000 Over $51,800 up to $82,500
24% Over $82,500 up to $157,500 Over $165,000 up to $315,000 Over $82,500 up to $157,500
32% Over $157,500 up to $200,000 Over $315,000 up to $400,000 Over $157,500 up to $200,000
35% Over $200,000 up to $500,000 Over $400,000 up to $600,000 Over $200,000 up to $500,000
37% Over $500,000 Over $600,000 Over $500,000

2017 income tax brackets

(Originally due in 2018.)

Rate Single Married (Joint) Head of Household
10% Up to $9,325 Up to $18,650 Up to $13,350
15% Over $9,325 up to $37,950 Over $18,650 up to $75,900 Over $13,350 up to $50,800
25% Over $37,950 up to $91,900 Over $75,900 up to $153,100 Over $50,800 up to $131,200
28% Over $91,900 up to $191,650 Over $153,100 up to $233,350 Over $131,200 up to $212,500
33% Over $191,650 up to $416,700 Over $233,350 up to $416,700 Over $212,500 up to $416,700
35% Over $416,700 up to $418,400 Over $416,700 up to $470,700 Over $416,700 up to $444,500
39.6% Over $418,400 Over $470,700 Over $444,550

What are tax brackets?

Your tax bracket shows the rate you pay on each portion of your income for federal taxes. In the 2022 tax bracket, for instance, someone filing taxes as a single person would pay 12% on the first $10,275 of their annual taxable income. Any additional income up to $41,775 will be taxed in the next tax bracket at 12%, and so on. Unless your income is right at the limit for a bracket, you will likely pay an overall percentage that’s in-between the rates listed.

If you made $20,000 in taxable income in 2022, for instance, your income results in some income being taxed in the 12% tax bracket—but only the portion that exceeds $10,275. So in the end, you’ll pay something between 10% and 12%.

That means your income may fall into two or more tax brackets depending on how much you earn. The percentage you pay on your overall income is called your effective tax rate. To get this, divide your tax paid by your taxable income.

Confusing? It can be, but the good news is this system limits the amount you pay on a lower income.

» If you need some help, you can always go with one of the best tax software options that will do the heavy lifting for you.

How are tax brackets determined?

There are currently seven different federal tax rates:

  • 10%
  • 12%
  • 22%
  • 24%
  • 32%
  • 35%
  • 37%

These rates were adjusted in 2017 as part of the Tax Jobs and Cuts Act and began in the tax year 2018.

The amount you owe is determined by your income and filing status—single, married (filing jointly or separately), or head of household.

What about state tax brackets?

Every state calculates its taxes differently. Some states use progressive tax brackets similar to the federal system. Other states have flat tax rates where everyone pays the same percentage on their income regardless of how much they earn. And a few states have no state taxes at all.

One way to lower your taxable income may be by taking itemized deductions if you qualify for them. Deductions mean less of your income will be taxed in the higher tax brackets.

Difference between “single, married, and head of household” filing status

Your filing status helps determine when you move between tax brackets.

Each filing status comes with its tax brackets for each marginal income tax rate. This makes sense when you think about the different filing statuses. 

Single people only file for themselves, so there aren’t multiple people or incomes to consider.

Head of household filing status is for a single individual supporting at least one dependent, so they need more money to support their household. Their tax brackets take more taxable income to increase to the next tax bracket.

Married filing jointly tax filers file a single tax return for two people. The amount of income it takes to move up tax brackets is much larger than for a single person due to the way the tax code works. This makes sense since the return essentially covers two people instead of just one.

The IRS has pretty strict guidelines for who can file under a certain status.

You should file as single if:

  • You were unmarried or legally separated on the last day of the tax year (December 31).
  • You don’t qualify for any other filing status.

You should file as married if:

  • You were married on the last day of the tax year (December 31).
  • Your spouse died during the tax year.

Note: if you file as married, filing separately, your tax bracket rates will be similar to the single filer’s tax bracket rates up to a certain level of income. If you file as married, filing jointly, your tax bracket rates will be different.

» MORE: Filing your taxes jointly or separately

You should file as head of household if:

  • You were unmarried or legally separated on the last day of the tax year (December 31).
  • You pay more than half of the household expenses.
  • You’re supporting at least one dependent child or a Qualifying Person. For someone to qualify as your dependent you should be providing at least half of their financial support.

Summary

These income tax brackets dictate how much federal income tax you will pay when you file your tax returns next year.

Remember, however, that these are marginal tax rates. That means that the highest rate applies only to money you earn above and beyond the upper limit of the lower rate.

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